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Report 2004: National Priorities, International Rivalries, and Global Cooperation

This initiative represents an ongoing effort by Hoover fellows, other scholars, practitioners, and government officials to examine specific issues relating to domestic and foreign considerations of national and international security; trade and commerce; the rule of law among nations; and the role of international organizations, security unions, and multilateral trade agreements.

The thirty-nine essays in Hoover fellow Victor Davis Hanson’s book Between War and Peace: Lessons from Afghanistan to Iraq, published by Random House in 2004, examine the world’s ongoing war on terrorism, from the American continent to Iraq, from Europe to Israel, and beyond. In his book, Hanson portrays a United States making progress against Islamic fundamentalism but hampered by the self-hatred of elite academics at home and the cynical self-interest of allies abroad. He sees a new and urgent struggle of good against evil that can fail only if “we convince ourselves that our enemies fight because of something we, rather than they, did.” Whether it is a denunciation of how the United Nations undermines the United States or a plea to drastically alter our alliance with Saudi Arabia, his arguments have the shock of candor and the fire of conviction.

Senior Fellow Victor Davis Hanson

Hoover in Washington, a Washington, D.C.–based event at which Hoover fellows make presentations to a select group of opinion leaders, policymakers, and journalists, was launched in December 2004. At the pilot event, newly appointed Senior Fellow Victor Davis Hanson (pictured) and Hoover fellow Peter Berkowitz spoke about the role of the United States in Iraq and the Middle East. Photograph: Williamson Murray.

In Free World: America, Europe, and the Surprising Future of the West, also published by Random House in 2004, Hoover fellow Timothy Garton Ash examines how, at the start of the twenty-first century, what used to be called “the free world” has plunged into crisis: Europe is trying to define itself in opposition to the United States; the United States increasingly regards Europe as troublesome and irrelevant; and Britain is split down the middle. Drawing on an extraordinary range of sources, including unique, personal conversations with George W. Bush, Tony Blair, and Gerhard Schröder, Garton Ash explains why Washington can never rule today’s interconnected world alone, why the new, enlarged Europe can realize its aspirations only in a larger transatlantic community, and how the torments of the Middle East and the world’s poor can be addressed only by free people working together.

The controversial position taken by Hoover fellow Niall Ferguson in his 2004 Penguin Press book Colossus: The Price of America’s Empire is that the United States today is an empire — but a peculiar kind of empire. Despite overwhelming military, economic, and cultural dominance, the United States has had a difficult time imposing its will on other nations, mostly because the country is uncomfortable with imperialism and thus unable to use its will most effectively and decisively. The origin of this attitude and its persistence are principal themes of this thought-provoking book, including how domestic politics affects foreign policy, whether it is politicians worried about the next election or citizens who “like Social Security more than national security.” The provocative questions Ferguson poses merit considerable discussion: What role does the United States play in the world? What role should it play? How well and for how long is the United States willing to play a role as an empire?

Senior Fellow Niall Ferguson

Best-selling author and historian Niall Ferguson has been appointed a senior fellow.

In Anti-Americanism in Europe: A Cultural Problem, published by the Hoover Press in 2004, Hoover fellow Russell Berman delves into the reasons behind the strained relations between the United States and some of its traditional European allies since September 11, 2001. He shows how, as the process of post–cold war European unification has progressed, anti-Americanism has proven a useful ideology for defining a new European identity. He also details the elements — some cultural, others simply irrational — of the disturbing movement and why it is likely to remain a feature of relations between the United States and Europe for the foreseeable future. The book makes a major contribution to understanding the important ideological challenge presented by anti-Americanism in Western Europe — not just a friendly disagreement but a widening chasm.

Another book that examines the strained relationship between the United States and Europe is Beyond Paradise and Power: Europe, America and the Future of a Troubled Partnership, edited by Hoover fellow Tod Lindberg and published by Routledge in 2004. The question of what, if any, common ground Europe and the United States share is discussed, not only by Lindberg in the introduction but by the authors of the essays throughout the book, which is organized in three sections titled “The Emerging Crisis,” “The View from Europe,” and “American Power and Its Discontents.” Hoover fellows Peter Berkowitz and Timothy Garton Ash contributed to the volume in addition to Lindberg.

Former Hoover fellow Adam Garfinkle edited the 2004 Hoover Press book A Practical Guide to Winning the War on Terrorism, in which he and his contributors — all intimately familiar with Middle Eastern social settings and political cultures — discuss how the military side of the war on terrorism is a necessary but not sufficient aspect of the solution. They show how we can — and must — stigmatize the idea of murdering civilians for any political cause, identify and stop the flow of money and other resources to those who carry out terrorism, refute the distortions of U.S. motivations that are promulgated by Islamic propagandists, and work patiently at social, economic, and political reform in Muslim countries.

In The Gravest Danger: Nuclear Weapons, Hoover fellow Sidney D. Drell and James E. Goodby — each with more than twenty years’ experience in national security issues in both public and private capacities — review the policy issues surrounding the nonproliferation of nuclear weapons. Aiming to stimulate public dialogue on this important subject, they address the specific actions that the community of nations — with American leadership — should take to confront and turn back the nuclear danger that imperils humanity.

CSPAN's Booknotes covered a symposium at which Media Fellow Philip Taubman (center) discussed the research that went into writing Secret Empire: Eisenhower, the CIA, and the Hidden Story of America’s Space Espionage. Taubman told the audience that he benefited greatly from the accumulated knowledge of Hoover fellows Sidney Drell (right) and William Perry (at podium) during the writing of his book.

During the early and most dangerous years of the cold war, a handful of Americans, led by President Dwight D. Eisenhower, revolutionized spying and warfare. In great secrecy and beyond the prying eyes of Congress and the press, they built exotic new machines that opened up the Soviet Union to surveillance and protected the United States from surprise nuclear attack. Secret Empire: Eisenhower, the CIA, and the Hidden Story of America’s Space Espionage, written by Hoover media fellow Philip Taubman and published by Simon and Schuster in 2003, is the dramatic story of these men and their inventions, told in full for the first time. Taubman discussed the book at a special event hosted by the Hoover Institution in March 2003. He was joined by Hoover fellows Sidney Drell and William Perry, who offered their insights on the technological legacy that defined the Eisenhower presidency.

Power and Purpose: U.S. Policy toward Russia after the Cold War, by Hoover fellow Michael McFaul and James Goldgeier, traces the evolution of U.S. foreign policy toward the Soviet Union, and later Russia, during the tumultuous and uncertain period following the end of the cold war. Drawing on extensive interviews with senior U.S. and Russian officials, the authors examine how American policymakers — particularly in the executive branch — coped with the opportunities and challenges presented by the new Russia. Throughout, the book focuses on the benefits and perils of U.S. efforts to promote democracy and markets in Russia as well as reorient Russia from security threat to security ally. The book was published by the Brookings Institution Press in 2003.

Many similarities exist between U.S. alliances with Japan and South Korea, both of which have yielded numerous mutual benefits for more than fifty years. Yet today, whereas U.S.-Japan defense cooperation is flourishing, conflicting perceptions in Washington and Seoul of Kim Jong Il’s North Korean regime — and how to deal with it — have generated deep concerns about the future of the U.S.-ROK alliance. Contributors to The Future of America’s Alliance in Northeast Asia, edited by Hoover fellow Michael Armacost and Daniel Okimoto, examine this challenge and offer thoughtful suggestions to help policymakers achieve the goal of regaining relevance and promise in the U.S. alliance with South Korea.

Preventing Surprise Attacks

Endeavoring to fill a niche by publishing monographs longer than journal articles, yet shorter than typical policy books, the Hoover Institution is launching the Hoover Studies in Politics, Economics, and Society. The series will provide authors a vehicle with which to publish important, concise books on policy, politics, and social criticism. The first book in the series, Preventing Surprise Attacks, by Richard A. Posner, provides an in-depth study of the post-9/11 movement for intelligence reform. In the book, Posner exposes the pitfalls created by the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004, identifies the issues overlooked by the 9/11 commission and Congress, and suggests directions for real reform. Topics under consideration for the series include the roots of religious extremism, problems facing the 109th Congress, and the growth and success of new democracies.