Materials on contemporary Cuba constitute an important section of the Americas Collection. Notable is the run of serials and newspapers from the 1960s into the 1980s, acquired during those years of U.S.-Cuban governmental hostility through a special arrangement with the Biblioteca Nacional José Martí in Havana. Included are works dealing with the revolution of 1895–1898 and the writings of José Martí.
Intensive collecting has been carried out for works covering the Castro period, especially the writings and speeches of Fidel Castro and Che Guevara, and on Soviet policy toward the island, making this part of the collection one of the most significant in the world. There is extensive material on and by Dariel Alarcón Ramírez ("Benigno"), a Cuban guerrilla who fought with Guevara in Bolivia, collected by Elisabeth Burgos; some papers of Juan Antonio Rodríguez Menier, a founding member of the Cuban Interior Ministry, that were used for his book Cuba por dentro: El Minint; the Theodore Draper papers (on Cuba and the Dominican Republic), including the research materials for his pivotal book Castroism: Theory and Practice; and the extensive interviews and other materials used by Georgie Anne Geyer for her biography of Castro entitled Guerrilla Prince. The archives also has extensive interviews with longtime CPSU (Communist Party of the Soviet Union) Cuban specialist and later Soviet ambassador to Mexico, Oleg Daroussenkov, dealing with Soviet policy toward Cuba and Daroussenkov's personal contacts with the Castro brothers and Che Guevara. Finally, there are records of many Cuban refugee groups, such as the Citizens Committee for a Free Cuba.