The Latin American portion of the Americas Collection consists of approximately 36,000 books, thousands of pamphlets, and more than two thousand periodical and newspaper titles, as well as manuscripts and other archival materials: microfilms, ephemeral publications, posters, photographs, phonograph records, moving picture and television films, and tape recordings. During most of the Institution's history, collecting concentrated on the ideology, organization, and activities of communist, socialist, Trotskyist, and other Marxist-Leninist governments, political parties, organizations, and individuals; urban and rural guerrilla organizations; anti-United States "national liberation" movements; pro-Castro groups; and foreign relations in the region, especially those of the United States, Cuba, the Soviet Union and China. The principal languages of the materials are Spanish and English.
On a more selective basis, the Hoover Institution collected on the ideology, organization, and activities of parties of the right, the democratic left, the radical left, and the Christian left; radical student movements; trade union movements; foreign relations, with an emphasis on border disputes; and antileftist groups, including anti-Castro refugee organizations and the anti-Sandinista Resistance (the so-called Contras) in Nicaragua. Of particular note are the vast clipping and pamphlet collections of the Institute of Hispanic-American and Luso-Brazilian Studies, which is a unique depository of sources dealing with developments in Spain, Portugal, and Latin America during the 1948–1964 period, and the files of the Yearbook on International Communist Affairs, compiled and published at the Hoover Institution between 1966 and 1991.
Since 1990 special attention has been given to democratic and free market reforms in the region, among the major holdings being thousands of classical neoliberal commentaries by hundreds of authors on the reforms of the 1990s and early 2000s—many released by the Agencia Interamericana de Prensa Económica (AIPE)—and records of the transitions of onetime guerrillas into active participants in democratic systems. A collection on legal reform in Latin America and the law and economics of development was largely assembled by Edgardo Buscaglia. Hundreds of recorded interviews with political, revolutionary, and intellectual leaders (including a dozen presidents) were conducted by Ronald Hilton, Timothy Brown, Frank McNeil, William Ratliff, and others. In particular, there are scores of interviews that Elisabeth Burgos conducted with the most important Latin American guerrilla leaders of the 1960s through the 1980s and with some of the government/military officials who opposed them (some of these materials are temporarily closed). Interviews with U.S. government officials dealing with Latin America include Robert Hill, U.S. ambassador to Mexico and Argentina; NSC Latin Americanist Roger Fontaine; State Department FSO P. Peter Sarros; and AID official and analyst Lawrence Harrison, as well as with other Americans and diplomats from other countries.
The United States Collection, the dominant area represented in the North American Collection, contains approximately 25,000 books and nearly three thousand periodical and newspaper titles, as well as a large holding of personal papers and archives. The main emphasis has been on the domestic developments and international policies of the United States during the two world wars, the Korean and Vietnam Wars, and specifically U.S. foreign policy toward the Soviet Union and other countries through the period of the Cold War and into the time of the expanding world market. Invaluable materials on U.S. politics and government are abundantly present in this collection. Documentation of American intellectual life since the end of World War II, as well as recent American conservative thought, is available in a number of collections, including records of the American Spectator Educational Foundation (currently closed) and broadcast tapes of the Firing Line television program. This collection is also the repository for an extensive body of materials on American education.