Though modest in size, Hoover's Romanian Collection is one of the best sources in the Western world for the study of twentieth-century Romanian history and politics, particularly because of its archival holdings. Among the topics best documented are the Balkan war, 1912–13; World War I, 1916–18; Romanian interwar political parties, 1920–40; the Bessarabian and Transylvanian problems; World War II, 1939–45; the Romanian Communist Party, 1925–89; and the Ceausecscu era, 1964–89.
The archival collections include papers of such significant Romanian political and diplomatic leaders as Ion Duca, Gheorghe Iliescu (this collection is closed), Mihai Marinescu, Nicolae Titulescu, Constantin Visoianu, George Caranfil, Dimitrie Ghika, Nicolae Petresceu-Comnen, Dimitri Popescu, and others. A substantial collection of political ephermera, documenting developments since December 1989, has been added to the Romanian subject collection. Additionally, an agreement has been reached with Fundatia Academia Civica to copy the Sighet memorial collection of oral history of communist crimes. Substantial portions of that collection, in digitized form, have already been received.