Holdings for Italy span the period from 1914 to the present, with special emphasis on the fascist era, World War II, the Italian underground movement, and political developments from the late 1950s on.
Parliamentary debates and government documents are held from 1909 to 1938 for the proceedings of the Chamber of Deputies and from 1909 to 1944 for those of the Senate; diplomatic documents for the years 1914–1943, issued by the Commissione per la pubblicazione dei documenti diplomatici, are also in the collection. World War I is covered by holdings of various official publications, such as L'esercito italiano nella grande guerra, 1915–1918, and Collanna di monografie storiche sulla guerra del 1915–1918. The fascist period is documented by La legislazione fascista (1922–43); News Notes on Fascist Corporations (1932–36); and newspapers and periodicals, among which are Gerachia: Rassegna mensile della rivoluzione fascista (1922–1942) and the Atti of the Partito nazionale fascista.
The Italian-Ethiopian war is documented in extensive League of Nations holdings. Exile publications issued in France, Great Britain, and the United States during the entire fascist period were acquired, including a series of periodicals issued by Giustizia e libertà from 1934 to 1937 and the monthly published in Boston from 1938 to 1951, Contro corrente: Organo d'agitazione e di battagli contro il fascismo.
For World War II, Hoover holds official histories of the army and navy; special collections of propaganda leaflets issued by the German High Command in Italy, 1944–1945; and original resistance movement documents of the Comitato di liberazione nazionale and the Partito d'azione. For the study of postwar government reorganization, an important file is the proceedings and the documents of the Constituent Assembly.
Italy's uneasy political balance continues to be followed via purchased publications on current politics and government and election propaganda material. In addition, current collecting on Italy stresses the rise of the industrialized north, the redevelopment of the Mezzogiorno, the struggles against the Mafia, and the recent changes in the electoral system.