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Thursday, October 22, 2020

Issue 68

Crisis in the Eastern Mediterranean
Background Essay
Background Essay

Turkey In The Eastern Mediterranean Crisis

by Soner Cagaptayvia Strategika
Thursday, October 22, 2020

Three wars that Turkey is currently involved in, namely in Syria, Libya, and the South Caucasus, suggest that Turkish president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan’s foreign policy has settled into a new phase. Erdoğan is building a “mini Empire” by—often—simultaneously fighting and power- brokering with his Russian homologue, and to this end the Eastern Mediterranean provides ample opportunities for him.

Featured Commentary
Featured Commentary

It’s Not The Energy, Stupid!

by Zafiris Rossidisvia Strategika
Thursday, October 22, 2020

In 2020, with the strong presence of American, Russian, French, Greek, Turkish, Egyptian, Italian, and even German warships, the Eastern Mediterranean has become one of the most militarized seas in the world.

Featured Commentary

Crisis In The Eastern Mediterranean

by Barry Strauss via Strategika
Thursday, October 22, 2020

The Eastern Mediterranean, like the Middle East, is a tough neighborhood. The current standoff over natural gas rights among Greece, Turkey, and their respective allies is only the latest example.

E.g., 10 / 31 / 2020
E.g., 10 / 31 / 2020
Tuesday, July 31, 2018

Issue 52

Turkey and the West
Monday, June 25, 2018

Issue 51

Nuclear Proliferation

Background Essay

by Gordon G. Chang Monday, June 25, 2018
article

Featured Commentary

by Thomas Donnelly Monday, June 25, 2018
article
by Thomas Karako Monday, June 25, 2018
article
Thursday, April 26, 2018

Issue 50

Pakistan's Partnership with the United States

Background Essay

by Peter R. Mansoor Thursday, April 26, 2018
article

Featured Commentary

by Ralph Peters Thursday, April 26, 2018
article
by Bing West Thursday, April 26, 2018
article
Tuesday, March 27, 2018

Issue 49

The Value of Economic Sanctions

Background Essay

by Josef Joffe Thursday, March 29, 2018
article

Featured Commentary

by Angelo M. Codevilla Thursday, March 29, 2018
article
by Thomas Donnelly Thursday, March 29, 2018
article

Related Commentary

by Thomas H. Henriksen Tuesday, July 18, 2017
article
by Reuel Marc Gerecht, Mark Dubowitz Sunday, November 10, 2013
article
by Bruce Thornton Tuesday, July 21, 2015
article
by Thomas H. Henriksen Friday, October 30, 1998
article

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Related Commentary

Beijing Fears COVID-19 Is Turning Point For China, Globalization

by Michael R. Auslinvia Real Clear Politics
Wednesday, March 18, 2020

While the world fights the coronavirus pandemic, China is fighting a propaganda war. Beijing’s war aim is simple: shift away from China all blame for the outbreak, the botched initial response, and its early spread into the broader world. At stake is China’s global reputation, as well as the potential of a fundamental shift away from China for trade and manufacturing. 

Related Commentary

China Boomeranging

by Victor Davis Hansonvia National Review
Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Its bad behavior in the wake of COVID-19 will leave it in its weakest global position in memory. And the U.S. will emerge stronger.

Related Commentary

The Coronavirus Is A Stress Test For Xi Jinping

by Elizabeth Economyvia Foreign Affairs
Monday, February 10, 2020

[Subscription Required] On February 4, Cui Tiankai, China’s ambassador to the United States, prepared to address an audience of students, scholars, and businesspeople in San Diego, California. Before the ambassador could speak, a young Chinese man stood up and yelled, “Xi Jinping, step down!” Security quickly whisked the man away, and the event went on.

Related Commentary

From Washington To Wuhan, All Eyes Are On Xi

by Michael R. Auslinvia The Wall Street Journal
Friday, February 7, 2020

China’s leader knows that his reputation for competence is on the line.

Related Commentary

How Important Is the Mediterranean in American Strategic Thinking?

by Bing Westvia Strategika
Friday, January 10, 2020

In posing this question, the Hoover Institution advanced both a major and a minor subject. The major issue is defining what passes as strategic thinking in America; the minor subject is the role of the Mediterranean within that context.

Related Commentary

China in the Mediterranean and Implications for the United States and Europe

by Nadia Schadlow via Strategika
Friday, January 10, 2020

Two decades ago, the strategist Mac Owens wrote a seminal essay on classical geopolitics. He described geopolitics as “the study of the political and strategic relevance of geography to the pursuit of international power,” adding that it involved the control of spatial areas that have an impact on the security and prosperity of nations. 

Related Commentary

Implications of the Ascendant Chinese Presence in the Mediterranean for Europe and the United States

by Hy Rothsteinvia Strategika
Friday, January 10, 2020

The growing Chinese presence and activism in the Mediterranean, an area beyond Beijing’s core interest areas in the East and South China Seas, are raising new questions about China’s conception of the future world order. The key question is whether China’s economic expansion is a case of the flag following international trade, or is trade a mechanism to expand global presence, influence, and control. The answer to this question may adversely impact the way of life for Europeans and Americans.

Related Commentary

The Mediterranean: Britain’s Lake, America’s Burden, and U.S. Strategic Thought

by Ralph Petersvia Strategika
Friday, January 10, 2020

The salient point about U.S. strategic thought and the Mediterranean is that, for most of our history, we didn’t think about it. Between our feud with the Barbary pirates and our World War II engagement in that wine-dark sea, we accepted that the Med was a British lake, in which the Royal Navy would guarantee security for trade and wartime dominance. 

Related Commentary

Competition in the Mediterranean

by Mark Moyarvia Strategika
Friday, January 10, 2020

During the Cold War, and for more than two decades after the Cold War, the United States was the dominant power in the Mediterranean. Barack Obama’s reduction of the U.S. military presence in the Mediterranean and the ensuing Russian intervention in Syria in 2015 allowed Russia to gain in influence at the expense of the United States. 

Related Commentary

To what degree has the importance of the Mediterranean waxed or waned in American strategic thinking?

by Peter R. Mansoorvia Strategika
Friday, January 10, 2020

The United States has a long history with the Mediterranean littoral. The first American overseas military expedition, the war against the Barbary pirates, took place in the Mediterranean in the first decade and a half of the 19th century. Although U.S. naval operations and Marine expeditions against the North African states of Morocco, Tripoli, Algiers, and Tunis did not immediately end piracy against American vessels, they did signal the willingness of the United States to use military force in the furtherance of its national security interests beyond its shores.

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The Working Group on the Role of Military History in Contemporary Conflict strives to reaffirm the Hoover Institution's dedication to historical research in light of contemporary challenges, and in particular, reinvigorating the national study of military history as an asset to foster and enhance our national security. Read more.

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Strategika is an online journal that analyzes ongoing issues of national security in light of conflicts of the past—the efforts of the Military History Working Group of historians, analysts, and military personnel focusing on military history and contemporary conflict.

Our board of scholars shares no ideological consensus other than a general acknowledgment that human nature is largely unchanging. Consequently, the study of past wars can offer us tragic guidance about present conflicts—a preferable approach to the more popular therapeutic assumption that contemporary efforts to ensure the perfectibility of mankind eventually will lead to eternal peace. New technologies, methodologies, and protocols come and go; the larger tactical and strategic assumptions that guide them remain mostly the same—a fact discernable only through the study of history.

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The opinions expressed in Strategika are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the Hoover Institution or Stanford University.