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Thursday, October 22, 2020

Issue 68

Crisis in the Eastern Mediterranean
Background Essay
Background Essay

Turkey In The Eastern Mediterranean Crisis

by Soner Cagaptayvia Strategika
Thursday, October 22, 2020

Three wars that Turkey is currently involved in, namely in Syria, Libya, and the South Caucasus, suggest that Turkish president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan’s foreign policy has settled into a new phase. Erdoğan is building a “mini Empire” by—often—simultaneously fighting and power- brokering with his Russian homologue, and to this end the Eastern Mediterranean provides ample opportunities for him.

Featured Commentary
Featured Commentary

It’s Not The Energy, Stupid!

by Zafiris Rossidisvia Strategika
Thursday, October 22, 2020

In 2020, with the strong presence of American, Russian, French, Greek, Turkish, Egyptian, Italian, and even German warships, the Eastern Mediterranean has become one of the most militarized seas in the world.

Featured Commentary

Crisis In The Eastern Mediterranean

by Barry Strauss via Strategika
Thursday, October 22, 2020

The Eastern Mediterranean, like the Middle East, is a tough neighborhood. The current standoff over natural gas rights among Greece, Turkey, and their respective allies is only the latest example.

E.g., 10 / 28 / 2020
E.g., 10 / 28 / 2020
Monday, February 26, 2018

Issue 48

U.S. Military Policy in Afghanistan

Background Essay

by Hy Rothstein, John Arquilla Monday, February 26, 2018
article

Featured Commentary

by Bing West Monday, February 26, 2018
article
by Max Boot Monday, February 26, 2018
article

Related Commentary

by Thomas Donnelly Monday, February 26, 2018
article
by Mark Moyar Monday, February 26, 2018
article
by Ralph Peters Monday, February 26, 2018
article
Tuesday, January 16, 2018

Issue 47

The State of U.S. Naval Readiness

Background Essay

by Seth Cropsey Tuesday, January 16, 2018
article

Featured Commentary

by Admiral James O. Ellis Jr. Tuesday, January 16, 2018
article
by Admiral Gary Roughead Tuesday, January 16, 2018
article

Related Commentary

by Thomas Donnelly Tuesday, January 16, 2018
article
Wednesday, November 15, 2017

Issue 46

Conventional War Against North Korea

Background Essay

by Michael R. Auslin Wednesday, November 15, 2017
article

Featured Commentary

by Thomas Donnelly Wednesday, November 15, 2017
article
by Miles Maochun Yu Wednesday, November 15, 2017
article

Related Commentary

by Angelo M. Codevilla Wednesday, November 15, 2017
article
by Josef Joffe Wednesday, November 15, 2017
article
by Peter R. Mansoor Wednesday, November 15, 2017
article
by Barry Strauss Wednesday, November 15, 2017
article
by Miles Maochun Yu Wednesday, November 15, 2017
article
by Victor Davis Hanson Thursday, September 28, 2017
article
by Thomas H. Henriksen Thursday, August 24, 2017
article
Thursday, September 28, 2017

Issue 45

The Practice of Principled Realism

Background Essay

by Josef Joffe Thursday, September 28, 2017
article

Featured Commentary

by Robert G. Kaufman Thursday, September 28, 2017
article
by Angelo M. Codevilla Thursday, September 28, 2017
article

Related Commentary

by Bruce Thornton Wednesday, August 30, 2017
article

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Related Commentary

The Prudence and Limits of President Trump’s Strategy of Recalibrating American Engagement in the Middle East

by Robert G. Kaufmanvia Strategika
Friday, January 10, 2020

For too long, the Middle East has dominated American foreign policy agenda to the detriment of addressing the nation’s most significant long-term challenges. The Trump Administration’s National Security Strategy has begun prudently to correct that, recalibrating America’s ranking of interests and threats to reflect geopolitical realities.

Related Commentary

Roiling The Waters: Changing Alignments, New Threats, And American Withdrawal Symptoms In The Contemporary Mediterranean

by Josef Joffevia Strategika
Friday, January 10, 2020

The Mediterranean is destiny, the cradle of our civilization. Think Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Persia, then Jerusalem, Athens, and Rome. What the Romans called “Mare Nostrum”—our sea—joined three continents. It was the highway of trade and culture, conquest and war. The basin was practically the world then, and a constant object of desire. This is where civilizations clashed and empires rose and fell for millennia.

Related Commentary

The Importance of the Mediterranean Sea

by Jakub Grygielvia Strategika
Friday, January 10, 2020

The Mediterranean Sea is one of Europe’s inland seas, linking the continent with the rest of Eurasia, and most immediately with the Middle East and Africa. As such, it has two characteristics. First, its strategic relevance to outside powers (such as the United States) depends on whether they deem European political dynamics of vital interest. If continental Europe (and to a lesser degree the Middle East) loses geopolitical appeal, then the Mediterranean is of little significance.

Related Commentary

Refining U.S. Strategy in the Mediterranean

by Chris Gibson via Strategika
Friday, January 10, 2020

China and Russia are increasingly gaining access to and leverage within the Mediterranean Sea region and the United States should refine its strategy to counter these concerning trends.

Related Commentary

The Italy Crux

by Angelo M. Codevillavia Strategika
Friday, January 10, 2020

Italy’s people are revolting against a political class that has ruled contrary to the voters’ will since at least 2011. As in Britain and elsewhere in Europe, popular discontent with the ruling class includes its support of migration and its attachment to the EU. Since Italy stretches almost all the way across the Mediterranean and has been the main avenue of migration into the EU since Turkey was induced to close the land route, what happens in Italy will affect the rest of Europe. 

Related Commentary

China In The Mediterranean

by Gordon G. Changvia Strategika
Friday, January 10, 2020

China believes it should rule the world, so of course it thinks it has every right to control the Mediterranean. In a few years, it will do so, if we extrapolate even just a little. Beijing’s dominate-the-Med strategy begins at the water’s edge, where it has embarked on an impressive ports-buying spree.

Featured Commentary

Europe’s Mediterranean Frontier

by Angelo M. Codevillavia Strategika
Friday, December 27, 2019

The Mediterranean abruptly separates Europe’s civilization from those of Africa and the Middle East. On one side, reaching North to Scandinavia and East to the Bering Strait, some seven hundred million mostly prosperous people live according to principles derived from Judeo-Christianity, Greek philosophy, and Roman law. Their number is shrinking. 

Featured Commentary

The Wrong Side Of The Pillars Of Hercules: The Mediterranean Just Doesn’t Matter Much Anymore

by Ralph Petersvia Strategika
Friday, December 27, 2019

The United States is an Atlantic and Pacific power by virtue of geography, strategic necessity, and economic opportunity. A forward defense of the far littorals—Europe and the East-Asian barrier states facing China—is the essential requirement for our security. All else is not only secondary or tertiary, but often an ill-advised and grossly costly drain on our resources.

Background Essay

Is The Mediterranean Still Geo-Strategically Essential?

by Barry Strauss via Strategika
Friday, December 27, 2019

The Mediterranean Sea is today, as it has always been, a crossroads. The name itself testifies to that, as it means “the sea in the middle of the earth,” a Latin term reflecting an earlier Greek belief. We know better, or do we? From Syria to Libya and on the high seas, and with outside players including China, Iran, Russia, and the United States, the Mediterranean has re-emerged of late as a cockpit of conflict. 

Background Essay

Economic Instruments And National Security Goals

by John B. Taylorvia Strategika
Friday, December 20, 2019

In this essay I address the question of whether economic instruments such as tariffs, embargoes, quotas, capital controls, financial sanctions, or asset freezes can achieve national security goals—economic, political, or military—and thereby help avoid international conflict, or even preclude war. The connection between economics and national security is an ancient issue about which people have debated for a long time. Thucydides wrote about the Athenians sending out ships to collect money to finance battles, but the very act of collecting money under force could be counterproductive and lead to war.

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The Working Group on the Role of Military History in Contemporary Conflict strives to reaffirm the Hoover Institution's dedication to historical research in light of contemporary challenges, and in particular, reinvigorating the national study of military history as an asset to foster and enhance our national security. Read more.

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Strategika is an online journal that analyzes ongoing issues of national security in light of conflicts of the past—the efforts of the Military History Working Group of historians, analysts, and military personnel focusing on military history and contemporary conflict.

Our board of scholars shares no ideological consensus other than a general acknowledgment that human nature is largely unchanging. Consequently, the study of past wars can offer us tragic guidance about present conflicts—a preferable approach to the more popular therapeutic assumption that contemporary efforts to ensure the perfectibility of mankind eventually will lead to eternal peace. New technologies, methodologies, and protocols come and go; the larger tactical and strategic assumptions that guide them remain mostly the same—a fact discernable only through the study of history.

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The opinions expressed in Strategika are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the Hoover Institution or Stanford University.