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Lubavitchers and Liberals

by Peter Berkowitzvia Policy Review
Sunday, August 1, 2004

Peter Berkowitz on Lubavitchers as Citizens: A Paradox of Liberal Democracy by Jan Feldman

Kojeve's Latin Empire

by Robert Howsevia Policy Review
Sunday, August 1, 2004

From the “End of History” to the “epoch of Empires”

Outline of a Doctrine of French Policy

by Alexandre Kojevevia Policy Review
Sunday, August 1, 2004

The first English translation of the philosopher’s 1945 memo

Conflicts Religious and Secular

by Steven Menashivia Policy Review
Sunday, August 1, 2004

Steven Menashi on The Fate of Zionism: A Secular Future for Israel & Palestine by Arthur Hertzberg

Military Affairs

Your Guess Is As Good As Mine: PLA Budgets, Proposals, and Discussions at the Second Session of the 10th National People's Congress

by James Mulvenonvia China Leadership Monitor
Friday, July 30, 2004

For observers of People's Liberation Army (PLA) politics and civilian-military relations, annual sessions of China's parliament—the National People's Congress (NPC)—are interesting for three main reasons. First, the session reviews the government's annual budget, which includes official figures for defense spending. These figures, with significant caveats, indicate the pace and scope of military modernization—as well as the relative political weight of the PLA. Second, roughly one-tenth of all delegates to the NPC are active-duty military officers, and their discussions (often complaints) in plenary sessions are useful markers of intramilitary concerns. Third, the NPC often passes military-related regulations, which sometimes reveal institutional or doctrinal trends in the armed forces. From that perspective, the second session of the 10th NPC in March 2004 is notable for restoring double-digit increases in the defense budget and for giving new guidance on military modernization and management of the army. Also notable was the absence of any visible civil-military split like the "two centers" debate from the NPC in March 2003.

Collision Course?

by Thomas A. Metzgervia Hoover Digest
Friday, July 30, 2004

Politicians and intellectuals in Washington and Beijing view the world in radically different ways. Is a showdown inevitable? By Thomas A. Metzger.

Party Affairs

Party Politburo Processes under Hu Jintao

by Alice L. Millervia China Leadership Monitor
Friday, July 30, 2004

Attention in PRC media to the activities of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) Politburo in the 18 months since the 16th Party Congress has illuminated aspects of that body's operating procedures and its members' roles. In particular, recent media reporting has further clarified the Politburo's meeting schedule and agenda, as well as the division of responsibilities for policy supervision among its membership. There have also been rare glimpses of the "leadership small groups"—the informal task forces that coordinate implementation of Politburo decisions throughout the party, state, and other hierarchies in China's political order. A previous article in China Leadership Monitor (issue 9, winter 2004) assessed aspects of the Politburo's schedule in the context of broader party procedural reforms inaugurated under Hu Jintao's leadership. This article complements and extends that analysis.

Political Reform

Promoting the Scientific Development Concept

by Joseph Fewsmithvia China Leadership Monitor
Friday, July 30, 2004

For the past nine months, party General Secretary Hu Jintao and other leaders have been promoting a new economic approach that they call the "scientific development concept." This approach aims to correct what they describe as an overemphasis in recent years on increasing gross domestic product (GDP), which encourages the generation of false figures and dubious construction projects while neglecting the social welfare of those left behind in the hinterland. Advertised as a "people-centered" approach to development, the scientific development concept has been extended to leadership practices in general, including the recruitment of talent and the administration of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). Leaders associated with former party General Secretary Jiang Zemin, such as Secretariat head Zeng Qinghong, have endorsed the scientific development concept, but Zeng in particular has appeared to demur at some of its central notions. At a minimum, this divergence underscores the difficulty of defining "social development" as opposed to "mere" economic development; at a maximum, it suggests continuing tensions within the leadership.

The Bushes: Portrait of a Dynasty

by Peter Schweizer, Rochelle Schweizervia Hoover Digest
Friday, July 30, 2004

With two presidents bearing the name, the Bushes are now the most prominent family in American politics. By Peter Schweizer and Rochelle Schweizer.

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Hostage of Eternity

by Lazar Fleishmanvia Hoover Digest
Friday, July 30, 2004

Reflections on the life of Boris Pasternak. By Lazar Fleishman.

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Military History Working Group


The Working Group on the Role of Military History in Contemporary Conflict examines how knowledge of past military operations can influence contemporary public policy decisions concerning current conflicts.