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George Shultz and Richard Nixon

How a Republican Desegregated the South’s Schools

by George P. Shultzvia Hoover Digest
Wednesday, April 30, 2003

Hoover fellow George P. Shultz reflects on the Nixon administration’s preeminent domestic achievement.

The Provinces

The Emergence of the Fifth Generation in the Provincial Leadership

by Cheng Livia China Leadership Monitor
Wednesday, April 30, 2003

The 16th Party Congress marked a shift of power to a younger generation of Chinese leaders, the so-called "fourth generation." These fourth generation leaders, led by new General Secretary Hu Jintao, not only have now held almost all top ministerial and provincial leadership posts, but also have occupied about 80 percent of the seats on the 16th Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). But ironically, these "younger generation" leaders are not really that young. Most generational studies on Chinese political elites define the fourth generation as the generation whose members were born between 1941 and 1956 and had their formative years during the Cultural Revolution. Now these leaders are between 47 and 62 years old.

Soviet Dissent and the Cold War

by David Sattervia Hoover Digest
Wednesday, April 30, 2003

Hoover fellow David Satter recalls the brave, lonely voices who helped topple the Soviet state. SIDEBAR: Soviet Dissident Collections in the Hoover Archives

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Death of the Butcher

by Arnold Beichmanvia Hoover Digest
Wednesday, April 30, 2003

On the 50th anniversary of the death of Joseph Stalin, Hoover fellow Arnold Beichman recalls the atrocities Stalin perpetrated—and the allure he held for craven Western intellectuals.

Military Affairs

To Get Rich Is Unprofessional: Chinese Military Corruption in the Jiang Era

by James Mulvenonvia China Leadership Monitor
Wednesday, April 30, 2003

Corruption among Chinese officers and enlisted personnel continues to be a point of tension between civilian and military elites in China. While the level of corruption reached its apex during the late 1980s and early 1990s, affectionately known as the "go-go" years of PLA, Inc., the repercussions of the center's decision in 1998 to divest the People's Liberation Army (PLA) of its commercial operations are still being felt in the system. For the first time, investigators and prosecutors from outside the military apparatus were given the authority to probe and pursue PLA malfeasance, and many in the military felt that the civilians pursued their assignment with far too much vigor and tenacity. This animosity was further exacerbated by reports of PLA complicity in the massive Yuanhua scandal in Xiamen and by the public prosecution of former General Staff Department intelligence chief General Ji Shengde on multiple counts of corruption. This paper analyzes PLA corruption since Tiananmen, with special emphasis on the civil-military aspects of the issue. The first section outlines the course and character of PLA corruption since 1990, as well as efforts by the military and civilian leadership to stamp it out. Particular attention is paid to the divestiture process in 1998, as well as the Yuanhua and Ji Shengde investigations. The article then concludes with an evaluation of the implications of these trends for Chinese civil-military relations and offers predictions for the future.

Party Affairs

Hu Leadership Focuses on Compassionate Conservative Governance

by Alice L. Millervia China Leadership Monitor
Wednesday, April 30, 2003

The four-month period between the 16th Party Congress held in November 2002 and the 10th National People's Congress (NPC) scheduled to open in March 2003 is transitional. The senior party leaders around Jiang Zemin who retired from their party positions are serving out the waning months of their terms in top posts of the People's Republic of China (PRC) state hierarchy, awaiting full retirement at the NPC. Meanwhile, the younger leaders around new party General Secretary Hu Jintao who succeeded them on the party Politburo await accession to the top state posts at the NPC. Despite the transitional nature of the pre-NPC period, the new party leaders have already begun work in roles that suggest the overall priorities of the new leadership. In particular, Hu Jintao has been at the center of efforts to present the new leadership as focused on the plight of those left behind in China's prosperity, on clean government and the rooting out of corruption, on the rule of law, and on greater transparency in leadership workings.

The Soul of the Law

by Robert Borkvia Hoover Digest
Wednesday, April 30, 2003

The task for legal conservatism? To preserve what we have and to regain as much as possible of what we have lost—a society that attains a more wholesome balance between the freedom of the individual and the legitimate demands of community. By Hoover fellow Robert H. Bork.

Economic Policy

The Emergence of Wen Jiabao

by Barry Naughtonvia China Leadership Monitor
Wednesday, April 30, 2003

Wen Jiabao is not yet formally premier of China, but he has been acting as premier since December. Evidence is accumulating that Wen will present a large-scale government reorganization plan to the National People's Congress (NPC) in March 2003. Wen is making a fast start and intends to make his mark on China's government. This diligence suggests that Wen will try to generate significant forward momentum on further economic reform within calendar year 2003.


with Michael McFaul, Abbas Milani, Guity Nashatvia Uncommon Knowledge
Monday, April 28, 2003

It's been nearly twenty-five years since the shah of Iran was overthrown in a popular revolution. The ensuing American hostage crisis marked the beginning of an era of mutual hostility between Iran and the United States—Iranian leader Ayatollah Khomeini often called the United States "the Great Satan"; more recently President Bush placed Iran on the so-called axis of evil. But an increasingly visible democratic reform movement supported by young Iranians born after the revolution suggests that Iran may be entering a new era of change. Just how powerful is the reform movement in Iran? And what should the United States do, if anything, to help bring about a new Iran?


with David Brooksvia Uncommon Knowledge
Monday, April 28, 2003

George Orwell was one of the great journalists and political writers of the twentieth century. His writings on the great political struggles of that century—imperialism, fascism, Stalinism—in books such as Homage to Catalonia, Animal Farm, and 1984, are revered. But is Orwell relevant to the main political and cultural issues of our present day? Or should we read Orwell merely out of an appreciation for language and history?


Military History Working Group

The Working Group on the Role of Military History in Contemporary Conflict examines how knowledge of past military operations can influence contemporary public policy decisions concerning current conflicts.