Dr. Melvyn Krauss, senior fellow at the Hoover Institution, opposes NATO expansion. Krauss says, "NATO expansion is being pushed on the basis of collective security. But the history of NATO has been one of the Americans doing the securing and the Europeans doing the collecting. NATO expansion is not necessary. Membership in the European Union would be a better alternative for Czech, Hungarian, and Polish economic and military stability." Krauss is an expert in international economics, U.S. aid to foreign nations and NATO. He is the author of How NATO Weakens the West (Simon & Schuster, 1986) and How Nations Grow Rich: The Case for Free Trade (Oxford University Press, 1997).