Bertram D. Wolfe (1896–1977) was one of the foremost American authorities on Soviet history and politics. Several generations of students in dozens of countries have acquired their first understanding of the events and personalities that shaped modern Russia from Wolfe's landmark study, Three Who Made a Revolution. The twelve essays on Lenin and Leninism published in this volume were written during the last decades of Wolfe's life and reflect the unique blend of personal experience, thorough scholarship, and commitment to humanism that informed all of his writings. These essays, nine of which appear in print here for the first time, do not constitute an integrated or complete biography of Lenin. Rather they suggest the direction of Wolfe's research and thinking on the subject of Lenin's place in the twentieth century.