Essays Icon

Filter By:



Research Team

Use comma-separated ID numbers for each author

Support the Hoover Institution

Join the Hoover Institution's community of supporters in advancing ideas defining a free society.

Support Hoover


India’s Long Struggle With Socialism

by David C. Mulfordvia Socialism and Free Market Capitalism: The Human Prosperity Project
Thursday, September 17, 2020

This paper on India has been included in the Hoover Institution’s important project on Socialism and Free-Market Capitalism, The Human Prosperity Project, because India represents a unique case of socialism and democracy in conflict. Following India’s birth to freedom and independence in 1947, its democracy was dominated by socialist, planned-economy policies that failed for nearly seventy years to achieve the levels of growth its people desperately needed to rise out of poverty.


Innovation, Not Manna From Heaven

by Stephen Habervia Socialism and Free Market Capitalism: The Human Prosperity Project
Tuesday, September 15, 2020

The United States is an outlier in the distribution of prosperity. As figure 1 shows, there is a small group of countries with per capita incomes above $40,000 that stand out from all the others—and the United States, with a per capita income of nearly $66,000, stands out even within this small group. How can it be that the United States has a per capita income roughly 50 percent higher than that of Britain, its former colonizer? 

Analysis and Commentary

Persistent Aggrandizement? Israel's Cyber Defense Architecture

by Elena Chachkovia Lawfare
Monday, August 31, 2020

Since 2011, the Israeli government has worked to centralize and streamline cyber defense authorities and responsibilities. It has established a new civilian national security agency to oversee cybersecurity preparedness and monitor and respond to cyber threats. The government has also advanced comprehensive draft legislation in broad consultation with a variety of relevant stakeholders from the private sector and civil society to regulate the authorities and operations of that new agency.


In An Emerging New World, Choose Economic Freedom

by George P. Shultzvia Socialism and Free Market Capitalism: The Human Prosperity Project
Thursday, September 3, 2020

The world is on a hinge of history. The future is going to be different from the past in major ways. At the end of the Second World War, people such as Dean Acheson, George Marshall, and Harry Truman sat atop another hinge of history, though they may not have realized it at the time—you can know something is important without knowing exactly what it is that you are dealing with. But when they looked around at the devastation that had been wrought across the globe, with tens of millions of lives lost and the economies of allies and adversaries alike in ruins, they saw how the United States could work with both to help. 


Environmental Markets Vs. Environmental Socialism: Capturing Prosperity And Environmental Quality

by Terry Andersonvia Socialism and Free Market Capitalism: The Human Prosperity Project
Tuesday, September 1, 2020

It is hard to date the beginning of environmentalism. It might have started when the Reverend Thomas Malthus in 1798 penned An Essay on the Principle of Population. Therein he postulated that humans would continue to reproduce until the population demands exceed their ability to produce food, after which famine, disease, and pestilence would check population growth in a “Malthusian trap.” His postulate continues to permeate environmental thinking. For example, in the 1970s, the Club of Rome, armed with data and computers, predicted precise years when we would reach the limits of the world’s resources.


Obstacles To Free-Market Capitalism That Help Make Way For Socialism

by John B. Taylorvia Socialism and Free Market Capitalism: The Human Prosperity Project
Monday, August 31, 2020

In a book that George Shultz and I published this year, we explained why one must choose economic freedom, meaning basically the opposite of socialism. Economic freedom, or free-market capitalism, the term of art used in this important Human Prosperity Project, means a rule of law, predictable policies, reliance on markets, attention to incentives, and limitations on government.

Blank Section (Placeholder)EssaysAnalysis and Commentary

Persistent Aggrandizement? Israel’s Cyber Defense Architecture

by Elena Chachkovia Aegis Paper Series
Wednesday, August 26, 2020

This essay compares Israel’s cyber defense architecture and recent reform with key concepts in current US strategy: Defend Forward and Persistent Engagement. It finds that the Israeli equivalent to Defend Forward is far less regulated than its US parallel, and that the Israeli version of Persistent Engagement at home allows domestic action and harnesses the private sector in ways that the US approach does not contemplate.


Socialism And The Constitution

by Michael McConnellvia Socialism and Free Market Capitalism: The Human Prosperity Project
Thursday, August 20, 2020

Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes famously described the US Constitution as “made for people of fundamentally differing views.” (Lochner v. New York dissent) By that, he meant that the Constitution does not commit the nation to any particular ideological or economic theory, including laissez-faire capitalism. Instead it leaves decisions about national policy to the democratic process, subject to the constraints of the Bill of Rights. Within the range of ordinary politics, Holmes was correct: Americans can decide, through their elected representatives, to have high taxes or low, generous welfare payments or a basic social safety net, government-owned enterprises or privatization, heavy-handed or light-touch regulation. That is the difference between democratic socialism and a largely free-enterprise economy.

Blank Section (Placeholder)EssaysAnalysis and Commentary

The Domestic Legal Framework For U.S. Military Cyber Operations

by Robert Chesneyvia Lawfare
Wednesday, August 5, 2020

Conventional wisdom holds that Congress has abandoned its duty regarding the government’s war powers. It is not hard to understand why. Between the agelessness and flexibility of the 2001 and 2002 Authorizations for Use of Military Force (AUMFs) and periodic unilateral uses of military force in Libya, Syria, and Iraq, the executive branch appears to act largely at its own discretion when it comes to conventional military operations.

Blank Section (Placeholder)EssaysAnalysis and Commentary

Defend Forward And Cyber Countermeasures

by Ashley Deeksvia Aegis Paper Series
Tuesday, August 4, 2020

Understanding when and how states may lawfully deploy countermeasures is critical for states operating in the cyber arena—not only to understand their own options when injured but also to anticipate the responses that their cyber activities may trigger from other states. This essay examines the role that countermeasures may play in the US cyber strategy of Defend Forward and argues that some states are developing a lex specialis of cyber countermeasures.