Angelo M. Codevilla

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Does International Law Promote Peace Or War?

by Angelo M. Codevillavia Military History in the News
Tuesday, October 20, 2020

On October 24, 1648, the Holy Roman Empire, Sweden, Spain, France, several German princi-palities, etc. signed what became known as the Treaty of Westphalia, or the Peace of Westphalia, ending thirty years of war among European sovereigns, ostensibly about whether the Roman Catholic Church or the several reformed churches should be practiced or forbidden, but actually about the prerogatives of political sovereignty. Though the sovereigns continued to disagree about church matters, they agreed completely that their rule would be absolute in the places they controlled.

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Anti-Colonialism’s American Wars

by Angelo M. Codevillavia Military History in the News
Wednesday, October 7, 2020

Europe’s political-military impotence continues to burden the United States. October reminds us that the key events in the creation of this impotence occurred during this month in 1956, and that U.S. policy bears substantial responsibility for creating it.

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Colonialism and War

by Angelo M. Codevillavia Military History in the News
Thursday, October 1, 2020

“In fourteen hundred and ninety-two, Columbus sailed the ocean blue.” And, after 33 days of dead reckoning navigation, he bumped into the Western Hemisphere on October 12. Spain’s colonization began as a military conquista, coupled with the extraction of precious metals. Within fifty years, Spanish colonists had built cathedrals and libraries in Mexico and Peru. A century later, British civilians colonized North America.

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Is It Wise To Pull Out And Redeploy 12,000 U.S. Troops From Germany?

by Angelo M. Codevillavia Strategika
Friday, September 11, 2020

President Trump’s decision to return the U.S 2nd Cavalry Regiment currently stationed in Germany to American soil (6,500 troops), as well as to redeploy mostly Air Force units from Germany to Italy and command headquarters to Belgium and Poland (another 5,600), will have mostly modest positive military consequences and has already benefited America diplomatically. The military consequences are modest because U.S forces in Europe have long since ceased to be potential combatants. 

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The Italy Crux

by Angelo M. Codevillavia Strategika
Friday, January 10, 2020

Italy’s people are revolting against a political class that has ruled contrary to the voters’ will since at least 2011. As in Britain and elsewhere in Europe, popular discontent with the ruling class includes its support of migration and its attachment to the EU. Since Italy stretches almost all the way across the Mediterranean and has been the main avenue of migration into the EU since Turkey was induced to close the land route, what happens in Italy will affect the rest of Europe. 

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Europe’s Mediterranean Frontier

by Angelo M. Codevillavia Strategika
Friday, December 27, 2019

The Mediterranean abruptly separates Europe’s civilization from those of Africa and the Middle East. On one side, reaching North to Scandinavia and East to the Bering Strait, some seven hundred million mostly prosperous people live according to principles derived from Judeo-Christianity, Greek philosophy, and Roman law. Their number is shrinking. 

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How Civil War Ignites

by Angelo M. Codevillavia Military History in the News
Monday, August 26, 2019

On August 10, 1932, General José Sanjurjo, commander of Spain’s army and former commander of its Civil Guard, declared rebellion against Prime Minister Manuel Azaña’s government. The General treated the Prime Minister as a Leftist enemy, and the Prime Minister treated the General as a monarchist enemy. Both were correct. Both were trying to use the government to harm their least favorite causes and people. The rebellion failed. The General was condemned to death, but only exiled. The level of mutual hate was yet insufficient for civil war. That changed.

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The Power Of Retreat

by Angelo M. Codevillavia Military History in the News
Monday, August 19, 2019

On August 18, 1812, General Mikhail Kutuzov, 67 years old, took command of Russia’s army, which had been forced to retreat as Napoleon’s Grande Armée, the world’s best fighting force and three times its size, advanced into Russia. Destroying the Russian army was Napoleon’s objective. Preserving it had become the Russians’ proximate objective. 

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Deus Vincit

by Angelo M. Codevillavia Military History in the News
Friday, August 16, 2019

On August 6, 1682, the Ottoman Empire, at the height of its power, declared war on the Holy Roman Empire. Muslim domination of Europe extended from the Balkans northward through Hungary and reached into Poland. Westward, only Habsburg Vienna barred the way. Louis XIV, for his own reasons, preferred dealing with the Ottomans rather than with the Habsburgs. Were the Muslims to have been victorious, they might have ruled from the Mediterranean to the Baltic.

Analysis and Commentary

Poland: Caught In The Crosshairs

by Angelo M. Codevillavia Military History in the News
Tuesday, August 13, 2019

On August 1, 1944, the Polish Home Army rose against Warsaw’s German occupiers. The Soviet Red Army, in force on the Vistula’s eastern bank, had told the Poles that it would attack the Germans as soon as they rose. Instead, the Russians stood by as the Germans killed virtually all 16,000 Polish fighters along with some 200,000 civilians, and destroyed old Warsaw. Germans and Russians faced each other at that location consequent to the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, in which the two had effectively jointly erased Poland from the map.