Since the birth of the United States, presidents have asserted greater powers at the short-term expense of liberty during crises, especially in times of war. Sometimes these expanded powers, such as authority to use military force, to monitor suspected groups, to arrest or deport, have come from Congress, and sometimes they have been assertedunilaterally. Events since the September 2001 terrorist attacks followed this familiar pattern. Congress passed several statutes, such as the USA PATRIOT Act, expanding and clarifying law enforcement and domestic intelligence powers. The Bush administration asserted as a matter of ’inherent‘ executive wartime authority additional powers, including the power to monitor domestic communications and to detain and interrogate certain suspected terrorists, beyond court (or public) scrutiny.