Contrary to the prevailing perception that the conflict in Yemen has been forgotten by the international community, the war has garnered a fair amount of attention. However, what is being overlooked is what is at stake in Yemen, how the conflict started, and why it has continued. Instead of focusing exclusively on the Saudi-led coalition’s involvement in the conflict, those seeking to understand the war and the ensuing humanitarian crisis should examine Yemen’s turbulent history, fragile state, the Houthi rebels’ record of militancy, and Iran’s designs to create yet another proxy force in an Arab country.
China is engaged in multi-faceted efforts to misappropriate foreign technologies it deems critical to its economic and military success. This chapter focuses on how China leverages the other aspects of its influence strategy, including efforts to co-opt universities, the Chinese American community, and corporations to further these aims.
China uses its companies to advance strategic objectives abroad, gaining political influence and access to critical infrastructure and technology. China has also made access to its domestic market for foreign corporations conditional on their compliance with various state objectives. This chapter also documents the growth of groups in the United States purporting to be local Chinese chambers of commerce that may have ties to the Chinese government.
China has all but eliminated the independent Chinese-language media outlets that once served communities in the United States, through a mix of co-option and aggressive expansion of its own competitors. As China also seeks to grow its global reach in media, it has severely limited the ability of US and other media outlets to operate in its country.
Think-tank researchers, scholars, and other staffers report regular attempts by Chinese diplomats and other intermediaries to influence their public events and work. This chapter documents these efforts while also providing an overview of the role think tanks play in US society, Chinese efforts to establish its own network of think tanks in the United States, and the non-reciprocal restrictions faced by American think tanks in China.
Universities have been the source of some of the most productive ties between the United States and China. In recent years, concerns about China’s efforts to interfere in their operations or exploit their work have grown. This chapter reviews the role of Confucius Institutes and Chinese Students and Scholars Associations on campus, documents China’s attempts to pressure universities that have engaged in activities deemed politically offensive, and highlights the exploitation of the open environments of universities for the purposes of intellectual property theft, all while China restricts access to its country by American scholars and researchers.
Chinese Americans have played an important role in the history of the United States and, like other immigrant groups, have been central to fostering productive ties between their ancestral and home countries. This chapter documents China’s attempts to influence, co-opt and, in some cases, coerce Chinese Americans to advance its objectives.
This chapter summarizes the longstanding ties between Chinese entities and state and local governments, highlighting their potential for mutually-beneficial engagement as well as the potential risks that arise from insufficient due diligence.
This chapter focuses on China’s efforts to influence Congress, principally through its long-standing support of trips to the country by members of Congress and their staffs. It also notes how Chinese entities are becoming more sophisticated in navigating legal “pay-to-play” politics, employing prominent lobbying and public relations firms.