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The Present Threat

by Abraham D. Sofaer, Sidney D. Drell, George D. Wilsonvia Hoover Digest
Sunday, January 30, 2000

The threat of biological and chemical weapons is already upon us—and in some ways is even more grave than the threat of nuclear weapons. A report by Hoover fellows Sidney D. Drell, Abraham D. Sofaer, and George D. Wilson.

Why East Timor Matters

by Charles Hillvia Hoover Digest
Sunday, January 30, 2000

East Timor has been in foment for decades. Yet last August, when the Timorese voted for independence from Indonesia, the United Nations and the Clinton administration were caught unprepared for the violence that erupted. Why? By Hoover fellow Charles Hill.

Analysis and Commentary

Ulterior Motives in Chechnya

by Michael McFaulvia Hoover Daily Report
Monday, December 13, 1999

All countries have the right to defend their people from terrorists. Russia is no exception.

Preventive Defense

by William J. Perry, Ash Cartervia Hoover Digest
Saturday, October 30, 1999

The post–Cold War era is in many ways proving more dangerous and unpredictable than the era of the Cold War itself. Hoover fellow and former secretary of defense William J. Perry and Ashton B. Carter offer a defense strategy for the scary new world.

The Administration Gets It Half Right

by Abraham D. Sofaervia Hoover Digest
Friday, July 30, 1999

Hoover fellow Abraham D. Sofaer explains what’s right—and wrong—with the administration’s latest antiterrorism proposal.

It Can Happen Here

by Richard J. Danzigvia Hoover Digest
Friday, April 30, 1999

The prospect of a biological or chemical attack is no longer hypothetical. By Secretary of the Navy Richard J. Danzig.

Why We're Allowed to Hit Back

by Abraham D. Sofaervia Hoover Digest
Friday, April 30, 1999

The legal basis for attacks on terrorists? In a word, self-defense. By Hoover fellow Abraham D. Sofaer.

Using Power and Diplomacy To Deal With Rogue States

by Thomas H. Henriksenvia Analysis
Monday, February 1, 1999

The end of the cold war a decade ago has ushered in a greatly transformed international landscape. Instead of a pacific era of peace and political harmony, the world, and particularly the United States, has been confronted with a menacing challenge of rogue regimes whose propensity for violence is matched by their intentions to disrupt regional stability, contribute to outlaw behavior worldwide, or to possess weapons of mass destruction. Ruthless rogues also endanger American interests and citizens by their active or passive sponsorship of terrorism. If left unchecked, rogue states like Iraq, North Korea, Iran, Libya, and others will threaten innocent populations, undermine international norms, and spawn other pariah regimes, as the global order becomes tolerant of this political malignancy.

As a major beneficiary of a global order of free markets, free trade, growing prosperity and spreading democracy, the United States, the world's sole superpower, must take the lead in confronting rogue governments, even though our allies may balk from time to time. Specifically, American power should be used to enhance the credibility of our diplomacy. Law and diplomacy alone are unlikely to affect rogue dictators. They must be reinforced with power. Four broad policy options, which in most cases should be combined rather than implemented individually, can be applied:

  • Sanctions and isolation to achieve containment of and inflict economic damage on a rogue state
  • International courts and domestic prosecution to bring rogue criminals to justice
  • Shows of strength and armed interventions to coerce or eliminate rogue regimes
  • Support for opposition movements or covert operations to oust rogue figures

Unless the United States addresses the challenge of rogue states with a combination of force and diplomacy, the new millennium will witness a widening of global anarchy, deteriorating progress toward economic development, and declining political reform. Dire consequences await the United States if it fails to react forcefully to international roguery.

The comments of my colleagues Charlie Hill, James Noyes, Henry Rowen, and Abraham Sofaer were helpful and are gratefully acknowledged along with those from Addison Davis, David Gillette, Bradley Murphy, Douglas Neumann, Piers Turner, and Robin Wright.

Five Ways to Beat the Thugs

by Abraham D. Sofaervia Hoover Digest
Saturday, January 30, 1999

Hoover fellow Abraham D. Sofaer on steps we must take to counter the terrorist threat.

The New Terror: Facing the Threat of Biological and Chemical Weapons

via Books by Hoover Fellows
Friday, January 1, 1999

Leading thinkers answer questions about biological and chemical weapons.


Research Teams