By 2030, vouchers (publicly or privately funded scholarships awarded directly to families to pay for private school tuition) had substantially displaced many failing public schools. Parents strongly preferred private schools, which provided superior achievement outcomes in the agreed-upon content of standard school subjects, as well as a diversity of additional subject matter, content, and methods of teaching and learning. The competition brought about by vouchers forced traditional public, parochial, and independent schools to improve their offerings, achievement, and appeal to parents.

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