A close examination of forty years of reforms since the publication of A Nation at Risk reveals little cause to celebrate. Too many efforts were characterized by unrealistic expectations, rapid application without proof of effectiveness, or a lack of coordination within the K‒12 system. Worse, these failures may have created a resistance to further efforts. However, evidence suggests that reforms that are focused and sustained can succeed despite political pushback.

About the Author

Margaret “Macke” Raymond is the director of the Center for Research on Education Outcomes (CREDO) at Stanford University. CREDO analyzes education reform efforts around the country and is a leader in studying US charter schools, school reform policy, measurement and performance, and accountability systems and incentives. Dr. Raymond holds a PhD in political science from the University of Rochester.


Conclusion: Times Have Changed. The School System? Not So Much. by Hoover Institution on Scribd

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