In the first essay of this series I pointed out that contemporary electoral instability resembles the electorally chaotic late nineteenth century period after the return of the Confederate states to the Union. Interestingly, several social and economic trends that roiled the United States then have made a reappearance in recent decades. Rapid and cumulative social changes   create new problems and create tensions in old electoral coalitions about how to address such problems. Possibly we are seeing a repeat of something long forgotten by most contemporary analysts.


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