Market trade helped American Indian economies and cultures flourish prior to European colonization. Both atrophied once US government policies subjected Indigenous people to reservations and assimilation campaigns. Today there is debate about whether economic development in tribal communities is compatible with cultural revival. After assessing historical and contemporary data on factors such as income and language use, we conclude there once was, but no longer is, a trade-off between development and the expression of Indigenous culture. Modern tribes are renewing their economies with self-governance that adheres to local customs, and they are investing returns from market enterprises in cultural goods.


Renewing Indigenous Culture... by Hoover Institution

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