Andrew Roberts

Roger and Martha Mertz Visiting Fellow

Andrew Roberts is the Roger and Martha Mertz Visiting Fellow at the Hoover Institution. Professor Andrew Roberts took a first in modern history from Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, from where he is an Honorary Senior Scholar and PhD. His biography of Winston Churchill’s foreign secretary Lord Halifax, The Holy Fox, was published in 1991 and was followed by Eminent Churchillians; Salisbury: Victorian Titan (which won the Wolfson Prize and the James Stern Silver Pen Award), Napoleon and Wellington; Hitler and Churchill: Secrets of Leadership; Waterloo: Napoleon’s Last Gamble; A History of the English-Speaking Peoples Since 1900 (which won the US Intercollegiate Studies Institute Book Award), and Masters and Commanders: How Four Titans Won the War in the West, 1941–45, which was shortlisted for the Duke of Westminster’s Gold Medal and the British Army Book Award.

Professor Roberts has edited What Might Have Been, a collection of twelve counterfactual essays by historians; The Art of War, two volumes of essays by forty historians; and The Correspondence of Benjamin Disraeli and Mrs Sarah Brydges Wylliams. His book, The Storm of War: A New History of the Second World War (2009) reached number two on the Sunday Times bestseller list, and Napoleon the Great won the Los Angeles Times Biography Prize, the Grand Prix of the Fondation Napoléon, and became a New York Times bestseller. He won the Bradley Prize in 2016. His biography of Winston Churchill, Churchill: Walking with Destiny, was published by Penguin in November 2018.

Professor Roberts is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature and of the Royal Historical Society; an honorary Doctor of Humane Literature; a Trustee of the Margaret Thatcher Archive Trust and of the National Portrait Gallery; chairman of the Guggenheim-Lehrman Military Book Prize; the Lehrman Institute Distinguished Fellow at the New-York Historical Society; and a visiting professor of the War Studies Department of King’s College, London. He reviews history books for over a dozen newspapers and periodicals. His website can be found at

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Recent Commentary

Blank Section (Placeholder)Analysis and Commentary

Propaganda On Parade

by Andrew Robertsvia Military History in the News
Wednesday, May 13, 2015

There can hardly be a more direct connection between military history and current affairs than over the celebration of the 70th anniversary of V-E Day in Russia on May 9. Vladimir Putin attempted to use the huge commemorations to promote the Russian armed forces, criticize the United States, sabre-rattle against Ukraine, cement alliances with rivals and opponents of the West, and generally to stoke up Russian hyper-nationalism.

Blank Section (Placeholder)Analysis and Commentary

Turkey’s Inglorious Past

by Andrew Robertsvia Military History in the News
Tuesday, May 5, 2015

The centenary of the start of the “Meds Yeghern” (Great Calamity)—the Turkish genocide against the minority Armenian Christian population of the Ottoman Empire—has come at an awkward time for the government of Turkey’s president, Recep Tayyip Erdogan.

Taylor Jones cartoon

From Drones to Zeppelins

by Andrew Robertsvia Hoover Digest
Wednesday, January 28, 2015

Conventional forces will always be relevant, while dazzling new weaponry may quickly become obsolete.

Background EssayAnalysis and Commentary

Just the Start of an Age-Old Conflict?

by Andrew Robertsvia Strategika
Monday, September 1, 2014

In a fascinating appendix to his history of guerilla warfare, Invisible Armies, the military historian Max Boot displays an extraordinarily comprehensive database of the 443 military insurgencies that have taken place globally since 1775. The earliest of these that is still ongoing is the Kachi and Karen tribes’ struggle against Burma, which started in 1948. Second comes the FARC/ELN/EPL/M-19 narco-insurgency against the government of Colombia, which started in 1963.

Spanish Civil War from an anarchist art album

Strategika: “A History of Surprise: War and Unpredictability” with Andrew Roberts

by Andrew Robertsvia Strategika
Tuesday, June 10, 2014

Why Armed Conflict Never Goes according to Plan

Okhrana Records, Box 237, Hoover Institution Archives.
Background EssayAnalysis and Commentary

Proper Military Balance As A Hedge Against An Uncertain Future

by Andrew Robertsvia Strategika
Thursday, May 1, 2014

The only thing that is predictable in warfare is its unpredictability. As soon as experts, general staffs, and politicians decide what they believe will be the nature of the next war in order to prepare for it properly, an entirely different kind of conflict happens. The witness of history is so uniform in this regard that it needs to become a general law of warfare: The war we expect and plan for is never the one we’re called upon to fight.

Is there any chance that Europe, either in common or in terms of individual Euro

The Decline of Europe’s Military Might

by Andrew Robertsvia Strategika
Wednesday, October 30, 2013

Andrew Roberts discusses Europe’s flagging commitment to NATO, the potential threat from Russia, and what, if anything, the United States can do to arrest the decline.

Analysis and Commentary

Is There Any Chance That Europe, Either in Common or in Terms of Individual European Nations - In Particular Britain, France, or Germany - Will Recoup Its Military Capability?

by Andrew Roberts, Angelo M. Codevilla, Josef Joffevia Strategika
Thursday, October 10, 2013

Withdrawal: European problems and the EU crisis make NATO increasingly irrelevant to U.S. security.

31% (41 votes)

Poster Collection, UK 2798, Hoover Institution Archives.
Background Essay

The Decline of Europe’s Military Might

by Andrew Robertsvia Strategika
Tuesday, October 1, 2013