Stephen Kotkin

Senior Fellow / National Fellow 2010–11
Research Team: 

Stephen Kotkin, in addition to being a Hoover senior fellow, is the Birkelund Professor of History and International Affairs in the Woodrow Wilson School and History Department of Princeton University, where he has taught since 1989.  He received his PhD at UC Berkeley during the years Reagan was president.  He has been conducting research in the Hoover Library and Archives for three decades.  He founded and runs Princeton’s Global History Initiative.

Kotkin’s research encompasses geopolitics and authoritarian regimes in history and in the present.  His publications include Stalin: Waiting for Hitler, 1929-1941 (Penguin, October 2017), Stalin, Vol. I: Paradoxes of Power, 1878-1928 (Penguin, November 2014), part of a three-volume history of Russian power in the world and of Stalin’s power in Russia. The first volume has been called "superb" (Wall Street Journal); "riveting" (New York Times); "magisterial" (American Scholar); "masterful" (Literary Review); "near definitive" (New Yorker);  "exceptionally ambitious" (Atlantic); "exciting" (Reason); and "judicious" (First Things).  He has also written a history of the Stalin system’s rise from an in-depth street-level perspective, Magnetic Mountain: Stalinism as a Civilization (University of California, 1995). With the Berlin Wall collapsing two months into his first course at Princeton, Kotkin has written a trilogy analyzing communism’s demise.  Two volumes have appeared thus far: Armageddon Averted: The Soviet Collapse 1970–2000 (Oxford, 2001; revised edition 2008) and Uncivil Society: 1989 and the Implosion of the Communist Establishment, with a contribution by Jan T. Gross (Modern Library, 2009).  A third, on the Soviet Union in the third world and Afghanistan, is in manuscript.

Although he has never served in government, Kotkin has participated in numerous National Intelligence Council events over the years.  He served as the lead book reviewer for the New York Times Sunday Business Section (2006–9), and has published a large number of reviews and essays in the New Republic, Foreign Affairs, Financial Times, Times Literary Supplement, and New Yorker, among other venues.  He has been a Hoover National Fellow, an American Council of Learned Societies Fellow, a National Endowment for the Humanities Fellow, and a Guggenheim Fellow.


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Recent Commentary


Is Putin Getting What He Wanted With Trump?

by Stephen Kotkinvia The New York Times
Saturday, June 10, 2017

In the Senate last week, Richard Burr, a Republican from North Carolina, asked the fired F.B.I. director James Comey if he had “any doubt that Russia attempted to interfere in the 2016 elections.” Mr. Comey responded with a single word: “None.”

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Moscow’s Wounded Pride

by Stephen Kotkinvia Hoover Digest
Friday, October 21, 2016

Vladimir Putin embodies many of the pathologies of the post-Soviet state, a land both animated and crippled by its sense of mission.


Brexit And Institutional Investors

by Stephen Kotkinvia Top 1000 Funds
Friday, July 15, 2016

Britain’s vote on June 23, 2016 to leave the European Union (EU) has been salutary, exposing the political, economic, and cultural divide between the Davos elites (to use shorthand) and the majority population.


Dwarf-Throwing And Other Delights

by Stephen Kotkinvia Wall Street Journal
Friday, May 20, 2016

Czar Alexander I spent most of the 1814-15 Congress of Vienna chasing young women.

Analysis and Commentary

Russia's Perpetual Geopolitics

by Stephen Kotkinvia Foreign Affairs
Monday, April 18, 2016

[Subscription Required] For half a millennium, Russian foreign policy has been characterized by soaring ambitions that have exceeded the country’s capabilities. Beginning with the reign of Ivan the Terrible in the sixteenth century, Russia managed to expand at an average rate of 50 square miles per day for hundreds of years, eventually covering one-sixth of the earth’s landmass.

Stalin’s Man in London

by Stephen Kotkinvia Wall Street Journal
Friday, November 20, 2015

The debacle of Yalta was prepared well before Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin convened in 1945.

Stalin, Lenin, and Sverdlov
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Hoover Fellow Stephen Kotkin Discusses Stalin’s Rise To And Consolidation Of Power

interview with Stephen Kotkinvia Uncommon Knowledge
Tuesday, October 6, 2015

Stephen Kotkin discusses Stalin’s rise and consolidation of power.

Analysis and Commentary

Russia’s Snarling Stuntman

by Stephen Kotkinvia The Wall Street Journal
Monday, October 5, 2015

Russia is declining, with talent and capital in full flight. Yet despite this wretched hand, Vladimir Putin is trumping the West.

Autocrat For Life

by Stephen Kotkinvia Hoover Digest
Friday, June 19, 2015

Vladimir Putin, with his genius for tapping the country’s pathologies, has come to embody Russia itself.

In the News

The 12 People Who Ruined Ukraine

by Stephen Kotkinvia Politico
Wednesday, May 27, 2015

When Russian President Vladimir Putin sat down to plot his invasion of Ukraine in February 2014, he didn’t have to start from scratch. Generations of Russian rulers have invaded Ukrainian lands to starve, deport and enslave the native populations, and Putin has drawn avidly from their playbooks. Ukraine’s oligarchs have been equally ruthless in despoiling the country, some even funding the very rebels who’d like to conquer it. Here’s a rundown of those who have done the most to devastate Ukraine.