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Why Mafias Develop

by Annelise Andersonvia Hoover Digest
Wednesday, April 30, 1997

Mafias operate in Sicily, the United States, Russia, and elsewhere. Hoover fellow Annelise Anderson examines the economics of organized crime.

U.S. Foreign Policy and Intellectual Property Rights in Latin America

by Edgardo Buscagliavia Analysis
Tuesday, April 1, 1997

This essay presents a legal and economic analysis of U.S. foreign policy regarding the protection of U.S. intellectual property rights in Latin America. Piracy of U.S. intellectual property in foreign markets costs American businesses up to $80 billion in losses each year. U.S. companies are estimated to lose one dollar to inadequate protection of intellectual property rights for every three dollars of revenue gained from exported products.

First, we explain the forces behind the move to strengthen the protection of intellectual property rights in Latin America. We examine the double-sided problem of intellectual property rights reform: the lack of adequate standards for intellectual property protection and the weakness of enforcement mechanisms (i.e., courts and administrative authorities). We also explain how, under the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, Latin American nations have committed to raising their standards of intellectual property protection.

Second, we explore current attempts at reform and the problems impeding further improvements, such as the lack of political stability, corruption within the legislatures, the use of intellectual property as an economic and foreign policy tool, the short-term incentives for politicians facing reelection to support local pirate industries, and the institutional failure of courts and administrative agencies throughout Latin America.

Finally, we outline the implications for U.S. foreign policy. Foreign economic pressures, coupled with regional trade pacts such as Mercosur, can be used to affect the costs and benefits of reform as perceived by Latin American politicians and business leaders. We conclude that although Latin American nations have traditionally considered intellectual property to be "the heritage of humanity" rather than a privately held asset, as they struggle to attract world-class technologies to their shores, Latin American countries are slowly realizing that they must reform their systems of intellectual property rights if they are to succeed in an age of high technology.

Laboratories of Democracy

by Suzanne B. Laportevia Policy Review
Saturday, March 1, 1997

Download your local sheriff

Crime and Management

by Joseph D. McNamaravia Hoover Digest
Thursday, January 30, 1997

Former San Jose, California, chief of police and Hoover fellow Joseph D. McNamara believes that if law enforcement were an industry, the nation's police force would qualify as a "mature organization saddled with a monopoly-minded culture." How McNamara turned the force in San Jose around.

The Imperial Judiciary—And What Congress Can Do About It

by Edwin Meese IIIvia Policy Review
Wednesday, January 1, 1997

Unelected federal judges are using their awesome power to usurp democracy from the American people.

Lessons from Abroad

by Heidi Goldsmithvia Policy Review
Friday, November 1, 1996

Shalom for at-risk youth

Redd Scare

by Joseph Locontevia Policy Review
Friday, November 1, 1996

A drill sergeant's brilliant assault on juvenile crime

Three Cheers for Three Strikes

by Dan Lungren via Policy Review
Friday, November 1, 1996

California enjoys a record drop in crime

Out of Order

by Steven G. Calabresivia Policy Review
Sunday, September 1, 1996

Clinton's court and its assault on justice

Addicted to Failure

by Robert Portman via Policy Review
Sunday, September 1, 1996

National politicians must think locally to win the war on drugs


Research Teams