Sanam Vakil was a visiting fellow at the Hoover Institution. Vakil is the James Anderson professorial lecturer in the Middle East Studies department at the Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS Europe) in Bologna, Italy. She is an associate fellow at Chatham House’s Middle East North Africa Program, where she leads the Iran Forum project focusing on future trends in Iran’s domestic and foreign policy. She provides research, commentary, and political risk analysis for companies and organizations working in the Middle East. She is the author of Action and Reaction: Women and Politics in Iran (Bloomsbury, 2013) and she publishes analysis for a variety of media and academic outlets.